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Java's advantage is in that it is composed of many smaller, re-usable chunks of programming code, called "applets" (short for "applications"). This allows for quicker transfer over the internet, meaning many new programs will now be able to become directly interactive, incorporating animation, sound, and more. (See also Java, ShockWave, and VRML)
Active Server Pages (ASP) technology is a compile-free programming environment that allows combinations of html, scripting, and components to create powerful Internet applications that run on Microsoft Internet Information Server. If you are already creating Web sites that combine html, scripting, and some reusable components, you can use ASP to glue these items together. In addition, one of the standard Server Components supplied with ASP is Active Database Object (ADO). ADO provides connectivity to numerous databases via Open Database Connectivity (ODBC). This enables development of ASP templates that populate the final web pages with data from a database at runtime. Here's how Active Server works: The user visits a web site that points to a web page with the ASP extension. The user's web browser requests the ASP file from the Web server. The server-side script begins to run with ASP. ASP processes the requested file sequentially (top-down), executing any script commands contained in the file, and outputs a plain html Web page. This plain html web page is sent to the browser. Because your script runs on the server, IIS does all of the processing and standard html pages can be generated and sent to the browser. IIS provides native support for both VBScript and Jscript.
Asynchronous Communication
Communication that occurs at different times, between two or more individuals, in contrast to Synchronous communication. For e.g. e-mails, some conferencing systems, bulletin boards.
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is a networking technology that provides a guaranteed quality of service. Standard Internet connections are based on Frame Relay technology. The throughput of Frame Relay links can be drastically reduced under certain circumstances, just as a garden hose becomes less effective when stepped on or kinked. However, ATM links are like metal pipes-they always provide the same amount of throughput, regardless of the pressure exerted on them.
A high-speed line or series of connections that form a major pathway within a network. The term is relative, since a backbone in a small network will likely be much smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.
Bandwidth is the amount of data, measured in Megabytes per month, that clients may transfer due to any traffic originating from or going to their Web site. A large part of this traffic is web traffic (Web site visitors) but can also be FTP (file uploads), Anonymous FTP (file downloads), and even E-mail services. In other words, the more bandwidth allowed, the better!
The word is generally used to refer to a collection of compromised computers (called Zombie computers) running software, usually installed via worms, Trojan horses, or backdoors, under a common command-and-control infrastructure. The majority of these computers are running Microsoft Windows operating systems, but other operating systems can be affected.
The Domain Name System. A system for translating computer names into numeric Internet addresses. For more info, go to:
E-mail forwards redirect e-mail messages to another mailbox either within its domain or to an outside destination.
is the unique name by which a system is known on a network. Hostname is crucial since it is used to identify the origin of email and other forms of electronic information interchange. For example, our domain name is:, we can have a hostname like:, or, or, or
Internet Protocol. The transport layer protocol used as a basis of the Internet. IP enables information to be routed from one network to another in packets and then reassembled when they reach their destination.
IP Address
A four-part number separated by periods (for example, that uniquely identifies a machine on the Internet. Every machine on the Internet has a unique IP number; if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Most machines also have one or more domain names that are easier for people to remember.
IP Spoofing
An attack whereby a system attempts to illicitly impersonate another system by using its IP network address.
IPv4 -- (Internet Protocol, version 4)
The most widley used version of the Internet Protocol (the "IP" part of TCP/IP.) IPv4 allows for a theoretical maximum of approximately four billion IP Numbers (technically 232), but the actual number is far less due to inefficiencies in the way blocks of numbers are handled by networks. The gradual adoption of IPv6 will solve this problem.
IPv6 -- (Internet Protocol, version 6)
The successor to IPv4. Already deployed in some cases and gradually spreading, IPv6 provides a huge number of available IP Numbers - over a sextillion addresses (theoretically 2128). IPv6 allows every device on the planet to have its own IP Number.
Kernel is responsible for memory management, process and task management, and disk management. It is the part of the operating system that loads first, and it remains in main memory. Because it stays in memory, it is important for the kernel to be as small as possible while still providing all the essential services required by other parts of the operating system and applications.
MySQL is a relational database management system. A relational database stores data in separate tables rather than putting all the data in one big storeroom. This adds speed and flexibility. The tables are linked by defined relations making it possible to combine data from several tables on request. The SQL part of MySQL stands for "Structured Query Language" - the most common standardized language used to access databases.
Network Latency
In networking, latency and bandwidth are the two factors that determine the speed of your connection. Latency is the time it takes for a data packet to move across a network connection. (Bandwidth is the capacity of data pipe that carries the data packet.)
Packet Sniffer
A packet sniffer is an application that captures TCP/IP data packets, which can maliciously be used to capture passwords and other data while it is in transit either within the computer or over the network.
A partition can be thought of as a division or "part" of a real Hard Disk (HD). When you partition a HD, you make it available to an Operating System (OS). Multiple partitions on a singe HD appear as separate drives to the OS. For example, when you install an OS such as Windows Vista or Linux CentOS, part of the process is to define a partition on the HD. This partition serves to define an area of the HD that Windows Vista or Linux CentOS can use to install all of its applications and files. For example, in Windows OS, the primary partition is usually assigned the drive letter of "C".
A network management tool that checks to see whether you can communicate with another computer on the Internet. It sends a short message to which the other computer automatically responds. If the other computer does not respond to the ping, you usually cannot establish communications.
The process of disseminating information throughout a system.
Proxy Server
A Proxy Server sits in between a Client and the "real" Server that a Client is trying to use. Client's are sometimes configured to use a Proxy Server, usually an HTTP server. The clients makes all of it's requests from the Proxy Server, which then makes requests from the "real" server and passes the result back to the Client. Sometimes the Proxy server will store the results and give a stored result instead of making a new one (to reduce use of a Network). Proxy servers are commonly established on Local Area Networks.
Reverse DNS
(rDNS) is a method of resolving an IP address into a domain name, just as the domain name system (DNS) resolves domain names into associated IP addresses. One of the applications of reverse DNS is as a spam filter. Here's how it works: Typically, a spammer uses an invalid IP address, one that doesn't match the domain name. A reverse DNS lookup program inputs IP addresses of incoming messages to a DNS database. If no valid name is found to match the IP address, the server blocks that message.
A rootkit is a toolkit for hiding the fact that a computer's security has been compromised, is a general description of a set of programs which work to subvert control of an operating system from its legitimate operators. Usually, a rootkit will obscure its installation and attempt to prevent its removal through a subversion of standard system security. Root kits may include replacements for system binaries so that it becomes impossible for the legitimate user to detect the presence of the intruder on the system by looking at process tables.
A special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the connection between 2 or more Packet-Switched networks. Routers spend all their time looking at the source and destination addresses of the packets passing through them and deciding which route to send them on.
SNMP -- (Simple Network Management Protocol)
A set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches. SNMP is defined in RFC 1089
When your computer is on the Internet via a SLIP connection, a socket is a conversation your computer is having with a computer elsewhere on the net. You may have one socket for an FTP session, another socket for a Telnet session, and another socket taking care of getting your mail.
A somewhat vague term generally referring to software that is secretly installed on a users computer and that monitors use of the computer in some way without the users' knowledge or consent. Most spyware tries to get the user to view advertising and/or particular web pages. Some spyware also sends information about the user to another machine over the Internet. Spyware is usually installed without a users' knowledge as part of the installation of other software, especially software such as music sharing software obtained via download.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol A protocol used to transfer e-mail between Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The system that networks use to communicate with each other on the Internet.
Telnet and/or SSH is a program to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to move files from one machine to another. It provides strong authentication and secure communications over un-secure channels. SSH access allows clients to take advantage of easy maintenance of their sites in a UNIX shell. Clients are able to roam through their sites, change permissions, move files, delete and save files, and debug scripts. Compiling programs is also possible. Telnet access also allows for manipulation of MySQL databases. All accounts come with one shell account. Telnet allows you to update the content of your Web site quicker and easier than FTP in most cases.
UDP -- (User Datagram Protocol)
One of the protocols for data transfer that is part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. UDP is a "stateless" protocol in that UDP makes no provision for acknowledgement of packets received.
VOIP -- (Voice Over IP)
A specification and various technologies used to allow making telephone calls over IP networks, especially the Internet. Just as modems allow computers to connect to the Internet over regular telephone lines, VOIP technology allows humans to talk over Internet connections. Costs for VOIP calls can be a lot lower than for traditional telephone calls. Because the IP networks are packet-switched this allows for vastly different ways of handling connections and more efficient use of network resources.
VPN -- (Virtual Private Network)
VPN -- (Virtual Private Network) Usually refers to a network in which some of the parts are connected using the public Internet, but the data sent across the Internet is encrypted, so the entire network is "virtually" private.
Wide Area Network. Any internet or network that covers an area larger than a single building or campus. (See also: Internet, LAN, network)
A zombie computer (often shortened as zombie) is a computer attached to the Internet that has been compromised by a hacker, a computer virus, or a trojan horse. Generally, a compromised machine is only one of many in a botnet, and will be used to perform malicious tasks of one sort or another under remote direction. Most owners of zombie computers are unaware that their system is being used in this way. Because the owner tends to be unaware, these computers are metaphorically compared to zombies.